Safeguarding Children and Young People (Under 18) Policy

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In2scienceUK regards the health, safety and welfare of all children and young people engaged in its activities, as one of its highest priorities. The organisation recognises and fully accepts its moral and statutory duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people and its duty to protect staff and volunteers from unfounded allegations of abuse. 

In2scienceUK believes everyone has the right to live free from abuse or neglect regardless of age, ability or disability, sex, race, religion, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, marital or gender status. Those in a position of trust must do everything they can to foster and protect these rights, to promote the welfare of all children and young people involved in In2scienceUK programmes and keep them safe from harm. In2scienceUK is committed to protecting both the participants we work with and our volunteers and staff.

The purpose of this policy is to ensure that all staff, volunteers and organisations working with In2scienceUK understand:

  • The legislation which relates to safeguarding children and young people.
  • In2scienceUK’s policy for safeguarding children and young people.
  • Their role and responsibility for safeguarding children and young people.

This policy should be read in conjunction with our Policy for Safeguarding Vulnerable Adults, Volunteer and Staff Code of Conduct, Student Behaviour Code of Conduct, and Whistleblowing Policy.


This policy applies to all individuals employed by or representing In2scienceUK, including managers, paid staff and trustees, hereafter collectively referred to as ‘staff’; placement hosts, mentors, supporters, partners, contracted service providers and other volunteers or anyone working on behalf of In2scienceUK, hereafter collectively referred to as ‘volunteers’.

In2scienceUK staff and volunteers are expected to read this policy and understand the standards expected of them with regards to safeguarding. This policy covers the safeguarding of all children and young people engaged in our activities across England, Wales and Scotland.

Where activities take place at the premises of a partner organisation, e.g. work experience, staff and volunteers are expected to abide by the organisations own safeguarding policies and procedures in conjunction with abiding by this policy. In2scienceUK will comply with external safeguarding policies as required.

This policy will be reviewed annually to ensure it is up to date with the relevant legislation and best practice.


We will ensure:

  • A safe environment for all participants, staff and volunteers. 
  • Those suffering or at risk of suffering harm or abuse are identified and referred to the necessary agencies as appropriate.
  • All staff and volunteers learn about safeguarding, the organisation’s policies and procedures and how to keep themselves and others safe.

We will do this by:

  • Appointing and training a Designated Safeguarding Lead (DSL), Deputy Designated Safeguarding Lead (DDSL) and Trustee Safeguarding Lead to lead on all safeguarding matters
  • Raising awareness of issues relating to the welfare and safeguarding of children and young people.
  • Requiring staff and volunteers to undertake safeguarding training as appropriate.
  • Ensuring all staff and volunteers understand and adhere to our Code of Conduct.
  • Engaging with stakeholders to ensure their commitment to safeguarding. 
  • Ensuring staff and volunteers recognise the signs of abuse or that an individual may be at risk of significant harm.
  • Working with other agencies as appropriate where an individual is being, or at risk of being, significantly harmed. (e.g., children and young people ’s services, schools and colleges, the police) 
  • Providing a framework for reporting and dealing with concerns and disclosures.
  • Establishing clear procedures for the reporting and handling of allegations of abuse against staff or volunteers.
  • Implementing safe recruitment practices for both staff and volunteers.
  • Ensuring that external organisations that host participants have adequate safeguarding practices in place before activities occur.


The key legislative frameworks and guidance around this policy are:

(See Appendix 1 for links and further resources)

  • Children Act 1989/2004
  • Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018
  • Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006
  • Social Services and Wellbeing (Wales) Act 2014
  • Working Together to Safeguard People 2021 (Welsh Government)
  • The Children (Scotland) Act 2020
  • Children and Young People (Scotland) Act 2014
  • National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland (Scottish Government, 2021b)


5.1. Safeguarding – protecting children and young people from maltreatment, preventing impairment of their mental and physical health or development and ensuring they are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care.

5.2. Child Protection – any activity that is undertaken to protect specific children and young people who are suffering, or are likely to suffer, significant harm.

5.3. Child/Young Person – anyone who has not yet reached their 18th birthday where their main abode is England or Wales. Legislation in Scotland means that a child can include anyone up to and including the age of 18 depending on their individual circumstance. In2scienceUK follows the guidance of the National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland (2021) on which framework to apply. This policy will address those under 18 as defined in the Children and Young People (Scotland) Act 2014 

5.4. Position of Trust is a legal term that refers to certain roles and settings where an adult has regular and direct contact with children. 

5.5. Regulated activity – refers to certain roles that involve working with children that a barred person must not carry out. Regulated Activity (regulated work) may be determined based on: what activity the individual is carrying out and how often it is carried out; Where the role takes place and how often the person will work there; whether the role is carried out in a specified place; whether the child is 16-17 and engaging in paid or unpaid employment (which covers work experience). Resources for guidance on regulated activity (work) in England, Scotland and Wales can be found in Appendix 2.  


Safeguarding is everyone’s responsibility and all staff and volunteers involved in the organisation’s activities have a role to play. 

In2scienceUK will ensure that all staff, trustees and volunteers have requisite training for their role, this includes:

  • All staff undertaking NSPCC or a Local Safeguarding Board approved safeguarding training specific to their role during induction. This training is to be renewed every three years.
  • The designated safeguarding lead, safeguarding officers and trustees receive updated safeguarding and child protection training every two years specific to their role and to cover legislation in England, Scotland and Wales.
  • All staff have access to yearly training and briefing sessions in safeguarding as well as updated internal guidance should changes in practice, guidance or legislation occur.
  • All staff responsible for the decision on hiring staff who will interact with children to have undergone safer recruitment training and abide by our safer recruitment practices.
  • Volunteers who work directly with students will be trained in In2scienceUK’s safeguarding procedure and policies and will be directed to ensure that they are up to date with their organisations own safeguarding policies and procedures. 

The Designated Safeguarding Lead (DSL) & Designated Safeguarding Person (DSP) Wales is Stephen Hancock – [email protected] 

The Deputy Designated Safeguarding Lead (DDSL) is Anishta Shegobin – [email protected] 

Trustee Safeguarding Lead is Paul Topping  – [email protected] 

The DSL and DDSL will be responsible for:

  • Managing the referral of cases of suspected abuse or allegations to the relevant agencies.
  • Keeping detailed, accurate, secure written records of concerns and referrals.
  • Maintaining secure and accurate records of any child protection concern, referral, complaint or allegation.
  • Communication of the policy and arrangements to all relevant parties including but not limited to service users, staff and volunteers.
  • Ensuring that staff and volunteers receive safeguarding training appropriate to their roles and update this annually.
  • Maintaining accurate and up to date employment records of all staff including DBS checks.
  • Maintaining safeguarding training records. 
  • The safety of all participants, including when it becomes apparent that a child is absent or missing from a session, without explanation and/or where there are concerns about their welfare. 
  • Providing periodic reports to the board about safeguarding incidents or referrals as well as policy implementation.
  • Act as a source of support, advice and expertise for staff and volunteers.


In2scienceUK operates safer recruitment and employment practices for all it’s staff and volunteers that are involved in our activities. 

7.1. Staff checks and critical process undertaken include:

  • Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) check, Disclosure Scotland check (PVG Scheme), or (international) Certificate of Good Conduct from a local police authority for all staff appropriate to their role. This includes Enhanced DBS checks for staff moderating online media or learning management systems.
  • Where a conviction is recorded, the DSL will carry out a risk assessment and decide whether to confirm or reject the individual’s appointment. (Anyone that is barred from working with children or adults at risk will NOT be appointed)
  • Where a DBS check or equivalent has been applied for but not yet received, the appointed individual will not have unsupervised access (whether in person or online) to any children or adults at risk.
  • Two validated reference checks will be obtained before employment which indicate the candidate’s suitability to work with adults at risk and children under the age of 18. 
  • All pre-employment checks are carried out prior to appointment, including evidence of identity obtained, right to work in the UK, valid qualifications check. Any discrepancies or issues will be assessed by the hiring manager and DSL before appointment and In2scienceUK may refuse appointment for failure to provide such evidence.
  • All staff sign and agree to abide by our code of conduct on appointment to the role. Any failure to abide by these standards will result in disciplinary action including suspension or termination of employment depending on severity.

7.2. In2scienceUK applies safer recruitment processes for advertising roles, screening candidates and conducting interviews in accordance with guidance from the NSPCC.

  • All job descriptions include our commitment to safeguarding children, young people and adults at risk and the role as well as detailing the requirements for pre-employment checks.
  • Inclusion of safeguarding screening questions, in accordance to NSPCC guidance, during the interview process to assess candidate suitability for the role.
  • Areas of concern in the CV or application will be addressed during the interview.
  • Appointments for roles that require working with children, young people or adults at risk will also include a self-disclosure form.

7.3. Volunteer checks and critical process undertaken include:

  • The majority of volunteer activities do not constitute ‘regulated activity’ including most hosting placements. Therefore standard & enhanced DBS checks or regional equivalents are not required by default and are not permissible to obtain under current legislation.
  • Where appropriate volunteers may be required to carry out and show evidence of a DBS check or equivalent where appropriate and where indicated by In2scienceUK.
  • In2scienceUK will indicate to volunteers that a DBS check or equivalent is required and what level of check is required and has processes in place to identify where a DBS check may be required based on the nature of the activity or needs of the individual identified. This might include those where periods of unsupervised work with children are identified or work with students who are identified as vulnerable, e.g. physical or psychological impairment.
  • Where a conviction or other concern is recorded, the DSO will carry out a risk assessment and decide whether the volunteer should continue to participate in the programme.
  • Inclusion of safeguarding questions, according to NSPCC guidance, during the application process to assess candidate suitability for the role.
  • All volunteers agree to our code of conduct prior to taking part in any of our programmes.
  • Organisations in which placements occur are informed of the upcoming placements and hosts are required to inform themselves and follow their own organisations safeguarding procedures in addition to those set out by In2scienceUK.

7.4. Student checks and critical process undertaken includes:

  • To ensure that all participants are the required age to take part in our programmes, children and young people are screened via a teacher reference. This must be completed along with a completed parental/guardian consent indicating that they are eligible to take part.


There are four main categories of abuse to recognise in safeguarding children and young people (under 18) include:  

  • Physical abuse – Abuse that causes any form of physical harm. This may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, but may also include fabricated or induced illness.
  • Emotional abuse – The persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development.
  • Sexual abuse –  Forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. This includes both contact and non-contact forms of sexual abuse.
  • Neglect – The persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development.

Other forms of abuse include; female genital mutilation, trafficking and modern slavery, child on child abuse, child criminal exploitation, child sexual exploitation, drug exploitation, forced marriage, radicalisation and extremism, bullying/cyberbullying, domestic abuse, financial exploitation. For full definitions on all types of abuse please see Appendix 5 these are also included on the NSPCC website.

Abuse of children and young people can be both active and passive. Failure to act to witnessing abuse or preventing known harm coming to a young person may also be a sign of abuse.


While not extensive signs of abuse may include:

  • Direct disclosures of verbal, emotional, physical, sexual, neglect, or bullying, by anyone. 
  • Third party disclosures (abuse happening to someone else).
  • Hints about abuse in submitted work.
  • Marks, bruises, burns or other injuries including those due to self-harm
  • Disordered eating, anxiety or serious depression
  • Sudden change in behaviour, e.g. very withdrawn when previously confident and happy, or suddenly aggressive.
  • Serious aggression or inappropriate behaviour.
  • Concerning language including sexualised and inappropriate comments.
  • Sharing inappropriate or sexualised content of themselves or others with anyone.


In2scienceUK acknowledges that children and young people can abuse other children, both in person and online. 

This is generally referred to as peer-on-peer abuse and can take many forms. This can include (but is not limited to) bullying (including cyberbullying); sexual violence and sexual harassment; physical abuse such as hitting, kicking, shaking, biting, hair pulling, or otherwise causing physical harm; Upskirting, sexting and initiating/hazing type violence and rituals. 

Concerns of child on child abuse should be treated as a safeguarding concern and dealt with in accordance with this policy and In2scienceUK procedures. See section 15 for details of our policy and procedures to ensure that children and young people are safe when participating online.

Sexual harassment or violence perpetrated by a participant in which another is harmed, will be referred to children’s socal services and the police. 


In2scienceUK recognises that in order to best safeguard the children and young people on our programmes we must create a safe environment in which they feel confident and supported to disclose any concerns to a trusted adult.

To do this In2scienceUK will maintain an ethos in which participants are encouraged to talk and are always listened to. Additionally, we ensure to make easily accessible lines of communication open and known to all participants. In2scienceUK will make all reasonable adjustments to support a young person in need of extra support to make a disclosure, including a disclosure in the Welsh language.

Staff and volunteers should never promise confidentiality during or after a disclosure and should let them know you may be required to pass on any information provided to ensure their wellbeing. During a conversation you should: 

  • Allow them to speak freely
  • Allow for silence
  • Not ask investigative questions
  • Ask open, non-leading questions
  • Remain calm with composed reactions
  • Reassure the individual that you are there to support them
  • Maintain professional boundaries 

Information should be written down at the earliest as possible opportunity and taken verbatim, it should not include interpretation or personal opinion. This information should be passed on to the safeguarding team in accordance with procedures in this policy. Do not attempt to investigate the incident further.

If you think a child or any other person is in immediate danger, or that a crime has been committed, please call the police on 999 straight away.


12.1. Procedure for Staff and Volunteers

If any member of staff or volunteer is concerned about the welfare or safety of a child or young person, they must report their concerns to the DSL, DDSL or Trustee Lead for Safeguarding within 1 working day.

The reporting individual should write down as much information as possible about the incident as they can during, or immediately following, an incident to help capture as much detail as possible while it is still fresh in their mind. 

The reporting staff or volunteer will be provided with a safeguarding incident reporting form in order to capture as much information as possible in order to aid in the decision making process. 

The DSL or DDSL should let you know when an incident has been responded to and it’s current status, however they may not disclose details of any outcome. If you have not received this information you may escalate the issue.

If for any reason you are unable to reach a designated safeguarding officer and you are unsure what to do, you can seek further advice from the NSPCC. 

Volunteer placement hosts should always follow their own organisation’s safeguarding policy and procedures in addition to those of In2scienceUK.

12.2. Procedure for Safeguarding Leads

When the DSL or DDSL receives a concern they must decide if harm has occurred, or if there is an allegation or reasonable grounds to suspect that harm has or is likely to occur. Consideration must be given on the impact of the alleged incident on the child, any previous incidents, the pattern of abuse or whether this is a one-off. 

  • Information gathering – It may be necessary to gather more information before deciding if there is reasonable cause to believe that abuse may have occurred. This could include checking rotas, daily records, and on occasion may require further discussion with staff, adults or the child.
  • Low Risk Reporting (Single-agency Response) – If the concern has been assessed as low risk and will therefore be handled within the organisation, this must be recorded as a safeguarding incident on the incident log by the next working day.
  • Medium to High Risk Reporting (Multi-agency Response) – When certain (or in any doubt) that there is an allegation of abuse and it is assessed as medium to high risk, the DSL or DDSL must also report it to the relevant local authority children’s social care, child protection or equivalent services no later than the next working day.
  • The DSL or DDSL will be required to follow local area reporting procedures and support with any requests or investigations, including information sharing with relevant organisations, e.g. schools, police and social services.
  • Where a serious concern of abuse or neglect has been reported, the parent/guardian will be informed but only after being reported to the relevant local authority and not if informing the parent may lead to further abuse or harm.
  • If the incident is deemed to be ‘serious’ in accordance with government and charity commision guidelines, this may also need to be reported to the charity commision. DSL, CEO and Trustee safeguarding lead will carry out an assessment of whether this is required.

In line with national guidance, incident reports will be retained for 12 months after they are first recorded. Data Protection Agreements and UK GDPR do not prevent sharing of this data for safeguarding purposes.


Any adult working with a child or young person (under 18) while employed or volunteering with In2scienceUK is placed in a position of trust and authority. In2scienceUK expects any such individual to act in accordance with this and to abide by our code of conduct ensuring to prioritise the safeguarding and their duty of care they hold towards the child. 

13.1. Student to Staff Ratios

To protect staff, volunteers and children (16+) and prevent incidents or allegations occuring, In2scienceUK ensures that all in person events organised by In2scienceUK are staffed at a ratio of 10 children to 1 adult in line with NSPCC guidance. 

13.2. Communication

All communication between staff, volunteers and participants should only take place within professional boundaries. This includes wider use of technology such as e-mail and messaging services, mobile phones, photo and video equipment, websites and social media. Staff and volunteers should only ever contact a participant via a professional communication channel e.g. a work email or phone, or via a moderated platform. e.g. Canvas LMS. All communication should be clear and open to organisational/external scrutiny. 

13.3. Placements 

During all placements taking place at a host organisation, volunteers must also abide by the safeguarding policies and procedures of the host organisation as well as those of In2scienceUK. All activities should take place in communal work spaces with another adult present to supervise. Where situations may require isolated working e.g. to use a particular piece of equipment, every effort should be made to ensure they are accompanied by another member of staff, and/or doors are left open to allow external supervision. Where a particular activity does not allow for any of these measures, e.g. radiology based activities, this should be included in a pre-placement risk assessment and In2scienceUK should be made aware. In2scienceUK requests that volunteer hosts report this prior to the placement taking place. This activity should be kept to the minimum amount of time to conduct the activity.

13.4. Physical Contact

There may be occasions when it is appropriate for staff or volunteers to have some physical contact with children but this should always be consistent with their professional role and in relation to a particular professional activity. In such circumstances physical contact should be kept to a minimum and carried out in an easily observable environment.

Physical contact may also be required if it is necessary to prevent personal injury to the child, adult or any other individual, or to prevent serious damage to property. When carried out it should always be done in a way that ensures the safety and dignity of all. The reason for the physical intervention should always be explained to the child clearly and calmly when appropriate and the incident should be recorded in line with our incident reporting procedures.

13.5. Sexual Contact

Any sexual activity with a child is a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, and will always be a matter for disciplinary action. Children (under 18) are protected by specific legal provisions regardless of whether they consent or not. The sexual activity referred to does not just involve physical contact. It may also include non-contact activities, such as causing children to engage in or watch sexual activity. We therefore expect all staff and volunteers to act in such a way that puts them above reproach.

13.6. Infatuation

A child or young person may develop an infatuation with an adult who works with them. Staff and volunteers should deal with these situations sensitively and appropriately to maintain the dignity and safety of all concerned. Any adult who becomes aware of an infatuation should report it at the earliest opportunity to the persons responsible for safeguarding at their organisation and to In2scienceUK’s safeguarding lead. Any adult should be aware that any infatuation may lead to higher risk of misinterpretation and should therefore be mindful of any language that references sexual behaviour or encourages an inappropriate relationship.

13.7. Alcohol and Drugs

In2scienceUK operates a zero tolerance policy on the use of alcohol and drugs by any staff, volunteer or participant on our programmes. Any individual who is found to be: intoxicated; supplying drugs or alcohol; or encouraging substance use will face immediate disciplinary action and where criminal acts have taken place will be reported to the police.


The primary concern in the event of an allegation is to ensure the safety of the child or young person. In all cases, action will be taken quickly, confidentially and professionally, with all parties clear that suspension is not an indicator of guilt, but a required part of a process.

Where an allegation is made, the CEO, Trustee Safeguarding Lead and DSL will meet to discuss the required action. In order that a full and fair investigation can be carried out, consideration must be given to suspending the member of staff or volunteer.  Where it is clear that a criminal offence may have occurred, the matter must be reported to the police.  

In2scienceUK will ensure to report to the relevant disclosure service in England, Scotland or Wales any individual who is considered to be unsuitable to work with children and dismissed. This would normally be the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) where the child lives. This will be done as soon as possible and ensured to be carried out within one month of the individual leaving the organisation.  

In the event that a member of staff or volunteer suspects any other member of staff or volunteer of abusing a child or young person, it is their responsibility to report these concerns to the Designated Safeguarding Lead (or Deputy), except in the circumstance in which the DSL is the person against whom the allegation is being made. In this instance, the report should go to the Safeguarding Trustee Lead. 


In2scienceUK conducts many of its programmes using online platforms in order to expand our reach and serve a greater number of individuals from across the UK. We believe that children and young people should be able to use the internet for education and personal development, but safeguards need to be in place to ensure they are kept safe at all times. 

We recognise that we have a duty to ensure that all children and young people involved in our organisation are protected from potential harm online, whether or not they are on In2scienceUK’s networks and devices.

 We will seek to keep programme participants safe by:  

  • Appointing an Online Safety Coordinator – Stephen Hancock, Head of Operations.
  • Moderating all communications on our online platforms.
  • Make and securely store recordings of all online video conferencing events e.g. webinars, mentoring sessions, for a period of 12 months following the completion of the programme.
  • Provide clear and specific directions to staff and volunteers on how to behave online through our code of conduct.  
  • Supporting and encouraging programme participants using our service to follow our student behaviour code of conduct and use the internet, social media and mobile phones in a way that keeps them safe and shows respect for others.   
  • Reviewing and updating the security of our information systems regularly and ensuring that usernames, logins, email accounts and passwords are used effectively.
  • Ensuring that images of programme participants are used only after their written permission has been obtained, and only for the purpose for which consent has been given.  
  • Examining and risk assessing any social media platforms, e.g. WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram and any other new technologies before they are used on behalf of the organisation, ensuring that they are only used for the purposes of education and in accordance with the code of conduct.  


In the first instance, contact the Designated Safeguarding Officer (DSL). If you are unable to make phone contact or receive an out of office reply, please contact the Deputy DSL.  If your concern relates to a member of the In2scienceUK team, please contact the Trustee Safeguarding Lead.

  • Designated Safeguarding Lead (DSL) – Stephen Hancock – [email protected] – 07436923304
  • Deputy Designated Safeguarding Lead (DDSL)– Anishta Shegobin – [email protected] – 07895873857
  • Trustee Safeguarding Lead – Paul Topping – [email protected] 
  • NSPCC – 0808 800 5000 – [email protected] –  
  • Childline (support for persons up to the age of 18) – 0800 1111 – 
  • Police & Emergency services – 999 – Emergency contact number – Non-emergency police services – 101
  • In2scienceUK staff confidential counselling helpline – 0117 934 2121
  • Safeguarding Helpline (Thirtyone:eight) – 0303 003 1111


Appendix 1. Legislation and Resources

Appendix 2. Regulated Activity with children and young people

England –

Wales –

Scotland – (Section 2.4)

Appendix 3. Safeguarding Reporting Procedure 

3.1. Staff  Volunteer Concerns & Disclosure Process

3.2. DSO Process

Appendix 4. Local Safeguarding Boards & Child Protection Committees (Scotland)

England –

Scotland –

Wales – 

National Safeguarding Board –

Regional Safeguarding Boards – 

Appendix 5. Definitions of Abuse

Abuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm, or by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting; by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger. They may be abused by an adult(s) or another child or children.

In addition to the stated types of abuse, there are many other risks that are faced by children, young people and vulnerable adults on a day-today basis. It is important that our staff understand these risks and recognise the signs that a leaner may be in need of support.

Physical abuse – Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces illness in a child. 

Emotional Abuse – Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the child’s developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone. 

Sexual Abuse – Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, including prostitution, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative or non-penetrative acts.  They may include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, pornographic material or watching sexual activities, or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways. 

Neglect – Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food and clothing, shelter including exclusion from home or abandonment, failing to protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger, failure to ensure adequate supervision including the use of inadequate carers, or the failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs. 

Child Sexual Exploitation – Child sexual exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or (b) for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator

Criminal Exploitation – Criminal exploitation of children is a geographically widespread form of harm that is a typical feature of county lines criminal activity: drug networks or gangs groom and exploit children and young people to carry drugs and money from urban areas to suburban and rural areas, market and seaside towns. 

Extremism and Radicalisation – Extremism is defined as “vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs; and/or calls for the death of members of our armed forces, whether in this country or overseas.” Radicalisation is defined as “the way in which a person comes to support terrorism and encourages other people to believe in views that support terrorism” 

Peer-on-peer Abuse – Children can abuse other children. This is generally referred to as peer-on-peer abuse and can take many forms. This can include (but is not limited to) bullying (including cyberbullying); sexual violence and sexual harassment; physical abuse such as hitting, kicking, shaking, biting, hair pulling, or otherwise causing physical harm; Upskirting, sexting and initiating/hazing type violence and rituals. 

Domestic Abuse – Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality.  Witnessing domestic abuse is considered to be emotional abuse in itself. 

Forced Marriage – describes a marriage in which one or both of the parties are married without their consent or against their will. Different from an arranged marriage, in which both parties’ consent.

Female Genital Mutilation – all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for nonmedical reasons. FGM is illegal in England and Wales under the FGM Act 2003.

Financial Abuse – The Care Act 2014 describes ‘financial abuse’ as a type of abuse which includes having money or other property stolen, being defrauded, being put under pressure in relation to money or other property and having money or other property misused.

Mental Health – all staff should be aware that mental health problems can, in some cases, be an indicator that a child or a vulnerable adult has suffered or is at risk of suffering abuse, neglect or exploitation. Only appropriately trained professionals should attempt to make a diagnosis of a mental health problem.  Where children have suffered abuse and neglect, or other potentially traumatic adverse childhood experiences, this can have a lasting impact throughout childhood, adolescence and into adulthood. It is important that staff are aware of how these early experiences can impact on their mental health, behaviour and education.